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Chapter 2

duhkhesv anudvigna-manah
sukhesu vigata-sprhah
sthita-dhir munir ucyate

Misery does not agitate his mind
Happiness is not hankered after
A man who is free from
Affection, fear and anger
Is said to be a centered man.
(sthita-dhir munir ucyate)||2:56||

yah sarvatranabhisnehas
tat tat prapya subhasubham
nabhinandati na dvesti
tasya prajna pratisthita

He is universally unattached
He is unaffected by bad or good results
(prapya shubha ashubham)
A person who is neither happy nor unhappy
In such situations, is steadied in his wisdom.
(tasya pragya pratisthata). ||2:57||

yada samharate cayam
kurmo 'nganiva sarvasah
tasya prajna pratisthita

A person who withdraws his sense organs
From corresponding sensory desires,
Similar to a tortoise withdrawing his limbs,
His wisdom is then considered steady.
(tasya pragya pratisthata). ||2:58||

visaya vinivartante
niraharasya dehinah
rasa-varjam raso 'py asya
param drstva nivartate

A person centered in his body
Can control his sense organs
But still continues to long the same way.
A centered and steady person
By virtue of knowing the ultimate
(param drastva)
Instead, gets rid of
The longing (rasam) as well ||2:59||

When the attachments (asakti) continue, O arjuna
The strength of the desiring sense organs
Can then abduct the wishful mind (mun)
Even though the person’s wisdom resists
For the desiring phenomenon is so strong ||2:60||

The seeker, having thus understood
The way the sense organs work,
Sits and meditates on me.
Such a man is master of his desiring mind
Has control on his sense organs
And His wisdom becomes centered
(tasya pragya pratisthita) ||2:61||

Thoughts are the key to attachments
Attachments catch their roots
And give birth to longing (kama)
Longing (if unfulfilled) can then
Lead to the development of anger itself. ||2:62||

From Anger comes clouding of judgment (moha)
Moha leads to loss of discretionary memory (smriti)
Then dawns the loss of intelligence (buddhi)
And this causes virtual death of the being (pranasyati)
Such a person is as good as being dead ||2:63||

A centered person is the master
He understands the separateness of sense organs
And their relationship to the
Attractions (raag) and aversions (dwesha)
Knowing this He wanders
Amongst different sense organs
With happiness and tranquility
Such a person is content within himself.||2:64||

This internal happiness and contentment
Results in the end of all misery
Such a person’s intellect
Stops wandering around
And gets totally established in the center ||2:65||

A person with a wandering intellect and
A person with unstable emotions
(Ayukta =split person, dissociated from center)
How can he get inner peace?
And how can anyone ever
Be Happy without this inner peace? ||2:66||

As wind takes control of a sailboat on the water
A person’s sense organ wandering in a particular desire
Is taken complete total control of by that desire
His intellect is also abducted by this desire ||2:67||

Therefore, hey mahabaho (Arjuna)
A person who understands the relationship of sense organs and the desire
And thereby abandons the desires completely from the sense organs
His intellect is established in the center
(tasya pragya pratishthita) ||2:68||

It is night; it is dark
We rest and we sleep
It is night and it is dark
He (the awakened one) is awake
He is alert; he is observing

It is daytime; we are busy in the market
We think we are awake; we are alert
He (the awakened one) is uninterested
Our daytime is night time for Him ||2:69||

Many a rivers, full to the brink
Flow and enter the ocean
The ocean is not disturbed
It does not even know or acknowledge
It stays still; it stays vast

Desires and longings that happen
And enter an awakened one
Is but a guest
Ready to transit and pass through
Not a trace is left behind
No imprints are made in his mind
He stays utterly still
No disturbance in sight
He is established in his inner self ||2:70||

His desires have dropped
He is not attached
His I-ness has dissolved
He is peaceful inside ||2:71||

He has attained the cosmic reality (brahmi sthiti)
He is no longer attached and he does not long
He stays cosmically established at the time of his death
For him death is a fiction
He is always already established in the cosmic reality (Brahmi sthiti) ||2:72||

Chapter 3

Arjun said

How come you, hey Keshava (Krishna)
Want me to follow the karma yoga
When in your thinking (as is comprehended by me)
Gyan yoga is the superior path ||3:1||

My judgment is getting clouded
When I hear you speak of these mixed words
So, tell me that one path
Which can lead me to that higher plane ||3:2||

Shri Bhagavan speaks

Once upon a time in the past
I have told these two paths of devotion
One the path of gyan yoga for the meditative
The other the path of karma yoga for the rest ||3:3||

No person gets to the state of non-working (nishkarma)
Simply by not performing of karma
Neither does any one get to the centering (siddhi)
By merely giving up (tyag) of any karma ||3:4)
(nishkarma = absence of doer-ship)

Never is it possible in any domain of time
For even an instant in the realm of life
That one does not do any karma
For he is forced to act (do karma)
By the attributes (gunas) of nature (prakriti) ||3:5||
(The momentum continues)

He who controls his sense organs
But enjoys the thoughts that wander around
Is simply fooling himself and others
He deserves to be called a hypocrite (mithyacharah) ||3:6||

But, hey Arjuna
The one whose mind has centered
And who can control the longing
Of the sense organs at will (by mana)
Uses the sense organs
He is the real master
He is destined to excel ||3:7||

Hence, do your obligatory (niyatam) karma
Because doing karma is better
Than not doing any karma
Moreover, by not doing any karma
You would not be able to
Sustain even your physical body itself. ||3:8||

Any karma that is not done for yagya
Becomes a binding O Kaunteya (son of Kunti)
Hence, do your karma without
Any attachment and surrendered to Parmatma
(Yagya = karma performed in surrender to Parmatma) ||3:9||

Prajapati Brahma caused creation
Of the praja (all creatures) by this
Surrendered karma of yagya
And said at the time
That this yagya methodology shall
Help you procreate and prosper in life. ||3:10||

You shall use this yagya methodology
To help the prosperity of the Devas
And Devas in return will help in
Your prosperity by the same methods
Thus by mutual surrendered karma
Both shall achieve the ultimate well-being. ||3:11||
(Devas = good souls become devas)

You do surrendered karma (yagya) for the devas
The Devas are happy and
You they bstow upon you
Whatever you would have desired
Without even asking for those things
And now that you have got what
You could have desired
Share it, share it, and share it
Because if you don’t
You are in fact
Kind of stealing it in real sense. ||3:12||

What you got is a gift
What you have shared is shared
What is left is for you
Enjoy it, enjoy it and enjoy it
If you instead cook only for yourself
From what you got in gift
Just to fulfill your desires
It is kind of a sin by itself. ||3:13||

All creatures come from anna (food)
Anna comes from rain (water)
Rain is directly related to yagya
Yagya is the result of karma (nishkam karma) ||3:14||

Know that all karma is born
From the Brahma (Vedas)
And all the Vedas emanate from
The imperishable Parmatma
Thus the Parmatma by default
Is established in every yagya as well. ||3:15||

Hey partha, this is the flow
And you should flow with the current
For if you don’t
And decide to live only for yourself
You shall suffer the consequences
And your life will be wasted
Your living will prove to be one in vain. ||3:16||

But a person who walks (ramana) with the self (atma)
Who is happy with his self (atma)
And is content and satisfied with his own self
Has no duty to comply. ||3:17||

He is not interested in doing any karma
He is not interested in not doing any karma
He has absolutely no attachment to any one
He is happy and content with himself
(karma still flow out of him) ||3:18||

Therefore, you ought to continue doing karma
Continue to work without any attachment
This is the path to the ultimate, the Parmatma
(The ultimate, the Parmatma can be reached
Through Karma yoga this way) ||3:19||

Others, the likes of Janaka
Reached the ultimate this way
By performing of non-attached karma
And you ought to do the same
This also is in the interest of
How the world can be sustained. ||3:20||

The leaders have to lead the way
Others are there to follow
He sets the standards by his deeds
Others follow by example. ||3:21||

Me, o Partha
Have no need to perform any duty
In any three space domains (lokas)
(Three lokas = mritya loka, pitri loka and deva loka)
I have nothing left to attain
Yet, I continue to do non-attached karma
(For I have to lead the way
They will all follow me,
And pay attention to what I do) ||3:22||

Because, hey partha (Arjuna)
If I am not careful
And decide not to do karma
This will lead to big losses
For, most people will follow my path
And not do their karma
(And without any karma
How shall the world progress) ||3:23||

And if I stop doing my karma
(You will stop as well)
Others will stop doing their karma as well
And this will lead to an unprecedented stagnation
Which in turn will cause much confusion
Leading ultimately to confusion of varna system
And destruction of the complete progeny (praja) ||3:24||

So every one should do karma
While ignorant work with attachment
And for fulfillment of personal desires
The wise should work with non-attachment
And for the welfare of the world at large ||3:25||

The wise should never confuse a person
Who is sincerely doing karma
With his attachments and desires.
But, he, the centered wise one
Should always do his karma well
And without attachment
And encourage others to
Engage in similar karma all the way ||3:26||

In reality, however
All karmas in all its forms are
The products of the attributes (gunas)
That arises out of nature (prakriti).
But the ignorant truly are convinced
Because of the effect of their ego (ahankar)
They are the doer of it all. ||3:27||

But hey mahabaho (Arjuna)
Those steady ones that truly understand
The divisions of Karma and that of Gunas (attributes)
Gunas abide in gunas
Understanding thus, the wise ones
Remain always unattached.
(Let it be, let it be, let it be
What is happening, is happening, is happening
Let it be, let it be, let it be)||3:28||

People are working
They are under the influence of
The gunas of the prakriti
(They do not know it)
They are attached,
They should not be disturbed
By the ones who know it fully
They should not be confused
By the ones who have reached the center
(They (the ignorant) have miles to go) ||3:29||

Therefore, hey Arjuna
Be centered in your Atma
Be completely unattached
Become free of emotional fevers
And surrender all your karma to Me (Parmatma)
Without worrying about the results
Get ready to fight the war at hand. ||3:30||

He trusts in me completely
There is no question of any doubts
In what I have said thus far
This person becomes free
From bondage of karma altogether. ||3:31||

But the population that
Finds fault with me
And what my views are
Consider them ignorant
And intoxicated with their
So called knowledge
Consider them lost and
Unaware of what they are doing. ||3:32||

Everyone gets to his own innate nature
That is his inherent potential
That is his swadharma
The wise one also tries to
Do karma according to his swadharma
How can anyone’s opinion
Make a difference in this situation? ||3:33||

The indriyas have potential energy
There is always a momentum
One should know of the ragas and dweshas
That resides in every indriyas
Ready to hijack the person as a whole
And take him away from the
Path that leads to the center
(raga = attachments, dwesha = aversion, jealosy). ||3:34||

Know and follow your swadharma
That is your aptitude
It is always better to even die
Following your own dharma

Following someone else’s path
And dharma is against the
Very personal nature and
Against the very aptitude (swadharma)
And is potentially fraught with fear.
(Fear of the unknown and
The fear of being against one’s nature) ||3:35||

Arjuna says

Hey Krishna: what then
Compels an individual to,
(Not wanting to do anything bad
As if forced by unknown energy)
Commit any sinful deeds. ||3:36

Bhagavan speaks

Of the three basic attributes (gunas)
(Similar to the three basic forces of nature)
Rajoguna is the one, which imparts motion
And is the origin of Kaama, the basic source
For anger or other desires,
This kaama Is the one that
You have to know and master
Because this basic kaama
Is the real root cause of problems
And can be seen as a foe for all human kind. ||3:37||

As the fire is enveloped by smoke,
A mirror is covered by dust and
A membrane covers an embryo
Similar is the situation for an ignorant
Where the wisdom is clouded by
The energy of kaama (anger or desires) ||3:38||

Fire burns and burns
It gets fiery and fierier
As you put food to the fire
(Ghee, butter or wood)
The fire is ever hungry
Its appetite never to be satisfied

Similar is the nature of
The energy of kaama
You must recognize
O son of Kunti
Kaama can never be fulfilled
And that by nature
Is the problem of this basic source kaama
(Of all the anger, jealousy and other desires). ||3:39||

This basic source of greed, desire and anger
That we call Kaama
Has a home in
The indriya, mun (wishing mind) and intellect (buddhi)
And that is what it uses to cover the wisdom
That we so much need and like
But this kaama keeps us busy
At the level of deep desires (moha) ||3:40||

So, Arjuna
You first be the master
Of the sense organs (indriyas) and then
Know the mechanism
By which the kaama works
That is the way to win over
The kaama energy, which is
The enemy of all kind of real knowing
(By simply covering and hiding the real) ||3:41||

The outermost and the closest we know
Is the physical body that we see,
Beyond that is the sense organs (indriyas),
Sill further and beyond is the intellect
And the furthest in one sense
And closest in another is
The center that we call Atma (soul or self)
(That we have yet to really perceive) ||3:42||

So reverse the role
Use your intellect (buddhi)
After knowing the ultimate
Which is minutest of the minute
The Atma, the soul or call it self
Make Buddhi your master and
Control the wishing mind (mun)
Which thereby can destroy the basic source
That we know is kaama. ||3:43||

Chapter 4

Bhagavan speaks

I spoke of these imperishable (avyayam) truths
To Vivaswat, the source of light
Also called the sun who
Then passed it on to Manu,
And Manu in turn
Told that to Ikshwaku, his son.

(Such eternal truths are
Never bound by the limits of time
These always remain outside
The domain of time and space) ||4:1||

The flow of this knowledge
Continued over time
And was known to the royal sages
For a long time, but
This knowing by tradition (parampara)
Appears to have been
O Arjuna, lost at the current time.
(The time of Mahabharata) ||4:2||

You are my devotee
And you are my friend
Thus, I speak to you
The same ancient yoga
(yoga=technology for centering growth)
Which indeed is a mystery (rahasya)
And is worth hiding (gupta) from the ignorant. ||4:3||

Arjuna speaks

You are not that old
You were born only recently
Sun is ancient
Sun was born centuries ago
How can I comprehend?
You could have spoken these truths
Directly to Sun (Vivaswat)
How could you have?
Talked at the beginning of time. ||4:4||

Bahgavan speaks

You and me
Have been born several times before
You are not aware of them
But, O Arjuna,
I happen to know them all. ||4:5||

I (Parmatma) am not destructible
I (Parmatma) am not to be born
(As physical body)
I am the master of it all
Yet, me by controlling the nature (prakriti)
Do make it possible
To manifest myself by
The mystical yogamaya
(yogamaya = Krishna still works
Within the constraints of maya
But under his control
And the control is by knowing the
Nature of the maya it self
Control = yogamaya) ||4:6||

Hey Bharata (Arjuna), whenever
There is decline of the value system, Dharma
And there is rise of the Adharma
(Destructive systems e.g. terrorism)
I manifest myself in the physical form. ||4:7||

I (Parmatma) make my physical appearance
A possibility in different times,
(Sambhavaami yuge yuge)
Protection of the goodness,
Destruction of the evil forces,
And reestablishing of the Dharma
(Dharma = value system of maya loka) ||4:8||

I appear to be a person
Like any one else
My actions are also simple
Like any one else
But, both my appearance and actions
Have another dimension
Only few can see
The dimensions of divine appearance
And that of my divine acts
And he who can see from the divine angles
Gets liberated and merges into me (Parmatma) ||4:9||

Freed from the attachments, fear and anger
Mind surrendered unto me (Parmatma)
The fire of knowing flowing inside them
Many have attained me in this way ||4:10||

A person worships (bhajanit me (Parmatma) in one way
I worship the person the same way
(What does it mean?
A person stands in front of a mirror
The mirror reflects him as he is
He puts a mask; He sees a mask)
And know it O, Arjuna
That every one ever, always follows me
In whatever path they do take. ||4:10||

Karma always produces results
Man worships different gods
For a desired result
And quite often he does get the result
In this physical body world (manushe loke) ||4:12||

The four different categories (varnas) of
People were created from me (Parmatma)
Based on the three gunas (attributes/forces)
And their influence on performing of karma
But, even though I am the source of the creation (creator)
Know me as a non-doer (akarta)
(Because I am completely non-attached) ||4:13||

I remain uninvolved while performing the karma
And also remain non-attached from the results
Those who know this nature of mind
Also reach the same fate
And do no carry the bondage of karma. ||4:14||

Knowing this, seekers in the past
Have performed karma without attachment
And you should also try to
Follow the path trodden by your ancestors ||4:15||

What is karma (doing) and what is akarma (non-doing)
Is not easy to determine
Even the wise ones get confused (mohit)
And cannot easily determine the true nature of karma
Therefore, today I shall
Tell you the essence (tattva) of this karma
So that you can really understand the intricacies
And thereby get freed from the karma-bondage. ||4:16||

It is important to know
The identity of karma (doing)
The ways of akarma (non-doing)
And also the intricacies of vikarma (crooked karma)
For, all the movements of karma are so subtle. ||4:17||

Karma is being done all around
There are vibrations
And there is noise all around
Inside though is all peace and quiet
There is no doer in sight
Such is the ways
Of the wise
He sees non-doing in all doing
And thus becomes the doer of it all. ||4:18||

Knowing of the subtleties of
The movements of karma
Is liberating from the bondage thereof
Such a person does karma
Which is devoid of any determination (sankalpa)
And is non-attached completely
This person is recognized as an expert (pundit)
Even by the centered wise one.
(An action devoid of sankalpa
And that of attachment
Still is an efficient karma
More so than the usual one) ||4:19||

He has no clinging
He knows that results
Are not in his control
He is ever satisfied
He depends on nothing
He is always busy
Doing something
But he still is a non-doer.
(He always succeeds in
Whatever he does
Failure does not exist in
The dictionary that he owns
He knows that nothing
Wrong ever happens in the existence
He does not think in terms of
Right and wrong in his world
Right and wrong are but only relative) ||4:20||

One who has mastered the body
And all its sense organs
And the one who has
No possessiveness left
(tyakta sarva parigrahaha)
Such a person although
Doing usual mundane karma
Is still a non-doer and
He does not incur any sin from doing it. ||4:21||

He is always content
Content with comes to him
He is ready to accept
Any event that happens around him
He is beyond the dualities of life
Such a person
Centered in his successes and failures
Is not bound by whatever
His karma may be
He remains a non-doer. ||4:22||

There is no desires left in him
He is centered in gyana (knowing)
He is always in company of
And with the Parmatma
All his karma is done
By the yagya methodology
(Surrendering to Parmatma)
He does not do any karma for himself
And thus, his doing is always a non-doing
He is always free from the bondage of karma. ||4:23||

Brahma is the only cosmic energy
That pervades the entire existence.
In yagya methodology
Brahma (e.g. butter) is offered to Brahma (e.g. fire)
Brahma is the flame
The process is Brahma
All the doings is Brahma
And all the results is also Brahma
(Once centered in Brahma
This knowing is revealed). ||4:24||


There is always something to offer (havan)
Havan has to be offered to something that has a flame
A flame that can burn and purify

Yagya is surrendering,
Yagya is dissolving,
Yagya is purifying by burning
Surrendered in the invisible flame
It is an art and
It is a science
Yagya is a technology
It is a methodology
It applies to the highest, the Brahma
And to many other levels apart from the Brahma.

Some yogis apply this yagya methodology
Systematically to different Devas
While others offer the Atma (self) as havan (offering)
To be purified by Brahma himself. ||4:25||

There are yogis
Who will make offering (havan) of the indriyas (sense organs)
To the burning properties of the control
While others will make offering of all desires
Into the purifying properties of the indriyas (sense organs)
(The importance is in the technique
It is in the state of being of offering
Even the sense organs can have
Purifying properties of fire). ||4:26

Others use the burning flame of
The knowing (gyan) propelled light
That arises from the fire of
Self control (atma sanjyam)
And make the offering of
All the karma of indriyas
And that of the prana (life force)
And thus purify them selves. ||4:27||

Several methods of yagya is known
Many offer their wealth
Others use austerity
While still others self restraint
And many offer self-study
While many others use extreme
Measures of different austere practices (vratas)
(yagya methodology = surrendered karma
Where there is purification by some kind of burning) ||4:28||

There are techniques where
This yagya methodology applies
The science of prana (life force)
Some offer the outgoing breath (apan vayu)
To the incoming breath and vice-versa
Some have mastered the art of
Stopping the pathway of prana and
Surrender it to itself
(prana to prana)
All these seekers know the art
And science of yagya and
Use it to overcome their vices. ||4:29-30||

Hey great Arjuna
Those who are happy with
What is left after the yagya
(The purified remains = nectar (amrit)
Become the knower of Parmatma
While those persons
That do not understand
And do not perform this yagya
Are not happy even in this
World of living beings (manushya loka)
How can there be any happiness
Present in the other world. ||4:31||

There are thus many
Yagya methodologies
That has been described
From the mouth of Brahma
In the past (in Vedas)
They all involve karma
Performed by the mind
Body and the sense organs
And knowing this
You can become free
(Free from the bondage of karma). ||4:32||

Hey Arjuna
More significant is the gyan yagya
When compared with that of
Ygaya involving valuable materials (dravya)
All karma in essence
Ends and dissolves in the supreme knowing (gyan). ||4:33||

Go to the seer
Serve the knower
Give them due respect
Ask them politely
Have no hidden motives
They might just tell you
The truth as it is
For they have known it
And can share it with you
When they wish to share it with you. ||4:34||

Knowing that, O, Arjuna
You will have no doubts
Your wisdom will not be clouded
You shall see the existence
First in yourself
And then visualize it
In me, the Parmatma as well. ||4:35||

You are a sinner of the worst quality
What do you do?
Do you have a chance?
Krishna says, “yes you do”
You have as much a chance as any one else
You can cross the rivers and oceans of sin
All you need is awareness
Awareness that leads you to the true knowing (gyana)
(gyanaplavena santarisyasi) ||4:36||

Because, hey Arjuna
As fire burns
Wood in to ashes
So does knowing (gyan)
Turns all karma
Into an ash like existence
By burning it at another level ||4:37||

Gyana purifies
Gyana purifies like no other
That exists or ever existed
And one who attains this
Knowing by yoga methodology
One day finds himself centered in himself. ||4:38||

One who is the master of his senses (sanyatendriyaha)
One who lives with deep trust (shradha) in existence
He gets the gyana just like that
The process is immediate
The process is spontaneous
And then he gets to the
Peacefulness without delay
(param shantim achirena adhigachati) ||4:39)

A man is ignorant
He has no trust in (existence)
Doubt is his nature
This person knows no happinsess
On this shore or the other
He is neither happy in this loka (this space)
Not is he happy in the other loka (after death) ||4:40||

O Dhananjaya (Arjuna)
One who has mastered the art of karma yoga
(Performs his actions (karma) surrendered to Parmatma)
And He by virtue of the gyanayoga
Has no more doubts or questions left
Goes beyond the bondage of karma
This person is centered in himself (atmavantam). ||4:41||

Therefore, Hey Arjuna
Destroy all doubts
Originating from your ignorance
With the help of sword like properties of
Your true knowing, the gyana yoga
And arise, O Arjuna
Arise afresh, arise afresh, and arise afresh. ||4:42||

Chapter 5-Hey Krishna
At one time you are talk of
Not doing mundane karma
(karma sanyas)
And yet another time
You emphasize on doing your rightful karma
That you call karma yoga
Please, please please
Tell me that one path
Clearly and precisely
The one path that will be
Beneficial and the right one for me. |5:1||

Bhagavan Speaks